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Pengajaran yang mereka mengajar". Jurnal Antarabangsa Seni Komik , 5 2: Sequential Tart. Dicapai Best New Josei Manga". Understanding manga and anime. ISBN The Josei Manga of Nananan". Publishers Weekly. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada Diambil daripada " https: Rencana untuk dikembangkan dari Mac Terminologi anime dan manga Manga josei.

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More and more Indonesians, especially teenagers and youth, are attracted to Japanese animated films anime ,4Japanese pop music, and Japanese fast food hoka-hoka bento.

These even become symbols of pride for Indo- nesian families who can afford them, not only urban residents but also people who live in villages. Lately, specifically since the late s and s, products such as electronics, automobiles, and motorcycles made in Taiwan, Korea, and China have gained favor, but Japanese products still rank at the top among the competitors.

Methodology The work reported on in this chapter has two main components, library research and fieldwork. The objective of the library research is to collect and evaluate data on manga translated into Bahasa Indonesia during the fourteen years from through The commercial publisher Gramedia Group continuously translated and published Japanese comics, and then distributed them to Indonesia's big cities.

A large firm, Gramedia has a wide network and operates many big bookstores around the nation. Most of the comics collected for this project were put out by Gramedia. For the present analysis I selected a 3 I would like to express my gratitude to the Sumitomo Foundation for funding this research. I also would like to acknowledge Ms. Hartiningsih for giving me data and examples of comic books trans- lated by Gramedia publishing house.

To Putu Ayu Wulansari for helping me outline the ques- tionnaires and process the data on which this essay is based, I wish once again to say thank you. And of course, we should not forget the drama series Oshin, the most popu- lar program in TVRI in the s. Oshin was the pioneer in the success of other drama series aired on TV. Indonesia has participated in this kind of festival since Yamaha, the biggest producer of musical instruments in Japan, frequently held music festivals in Indonesia; what started with Yamaha sponsorship as "Light Music Contest" has changed its name into "Band Explosion" and "Music Quest.

Any mistranslation or inaccuracy in translation was observed, and notes or comments were recorded; the appendix to this chapter offers excerpts of the results. I conducted field research in six cities: Each of these cities has a large university and each of the universities has a Japanese Language and Japanese Studies Department.

For the fieldwork, I designed a questionnaire to elicit students' perceptions. I distributed this questionnaire at twelve universities and twenty-four high schools. In all, I distributed questionnaires in Jakarta and in the five other cities questionnaires each. Jakarta, it may be unnecessary to remark, got the largest number of questionnaires because it has the biggest population and is the most multicultural of the cities studied here.

In each city I engaged two university students and four senior high school students to assist in collecting data; I also enlisted the help of one young lecturer in each university and one teacher in each high school. The students made lists of the comic books sold in each city, and bought many rare comic books to add to my data sample.

Many of these comics were downloadd at Gramedia bookstore and Gramedia Publishing house. I also benefited from the cooperation of many of my former students, graduates of the University of Indonesia and the University of Darma Persada, who have become employees of PT.

Elex Media Komputindo, a unit of the Gramedia group that publishes comics.


Population of Manga Readers in Six Cities 6 The response rate for the questionnaire was quite high, Out of the ques- tionnaires distributed, there were answered.

From those questions an analysis regarding the impacts on reading comic books among the youth in Indonesia will be produced. On the question regarding preferred reading material, almost two-thirds Surabaya, Denpasar, and Padang.

In these six cities there are universities which have Japanese Departments, each with its different characteristics. Jakartarepre- sents metropolitan cities, while other cities like Bandung and Yogyakarta represent national cities with quite strong- ly preserved local cultural traits.

Surabaya represents semi-metropolitan cities in which inherited local cu lture re- mains strong. Denpasar is a city where people from many different countries meet, yet whose local culture Balinese culture continues to be prevalent.

The last city is Padang. Padang is chosen because it has special characteristics as a city which is "rather" isolated from the influences offoreign cultures and is which perpetuates its local culture.

Translation of Japanese Manga into Bahasa Indonesia of the respondents answered comic books. With multiple responses allowed, comics were followed by magazines, By region, the youth of Bandung Compared to the youth of Ja- karta, But youth ofYogyakarta and Bandung are also very attracted to science books, And youth of Jakarta, Denpasar, and Surabaya take approximately the same moderate position It can be inferred that young people in Padang are very interested in following the spread of mass culture, but rather undeveloped when it comes to acquisition of scientific knowledge.

It is possible that ethnicity is relevant in interpreting these figures. The Minangkabau are the predominant ethnic group in West Sumatera, for example, where Padang and Bukit Tinggi are the two most important cities; this area is the place of origin of many prominent intellectuals such as Mohammad Hatta, the first Vice President of Indonesia, and many leaders of the Indonesian Independence movement elite, such as Haji Agus Salim.

Yogyakarta, where the biggest national institu- tion of higher learning, Gajah Mada University, is located, is the place where my survey finds the most youths who designate science books as their preferred choice of reading, although they also read comic books.

Pages in category "Light novel (Indonesian)"

In the Yogyakarta case comic books and science books have the same importance. Japanese manga are overwhelmingly the most popular comic books in Indonesia. My questionnaire results indicate that by country of origin, Japanese manga, at While Only in Yogyakarta did a majority Youth of the other five cities did not select Indonesian comics as their favorites: Jakarta 1.

It is also interesting to point out that youth ofPadang and Denpasar-the two regions that show the greatest continuity with their traditional culture and way of life-are now very actively reading comics. This seems to show that the youth of both regions are also ac- tively involved in popular culture activities, although there are striking contrasts between the two cities.

Denpasar is the site of the regional government office and a center of higher education, the economy, and tourism, and it offers many opportunities for absorption of foreign culture, unlike Padang, which remains quite isolated from foreign tourism.

In all big Indonesian cities, however, the influence of television broadcasting and good distribu- tion of reading material books, comic books, newspapers, magazines, etc.

In no region did respondents read science fiction comics more than love stories or stories with detective and adventure themes.

The question is why the Indonesian youth do not favor scientific theme as their leisure reading. Is the content of science fiction comics less interesting than romance love stories, detective or adventure stories? The answered should be yes or no, because most of the respondents are students in senior high school and university social sciences, humanities, and language departments.

Nearly two-thirds of respondents indicated that they are very attracted to Japanese manga because of good illustration or drawing Other reasons they like manga are: For the respondents of all regions the "interesting points" of Japanese comics are illustrations, stories, and theme.

The language of the comics ranks lowest, only 9. From data I have compiled on mistranslations see the List of Errors or Mistransla- tions in the appendix , I conclude that mistranslation of texts in some scenes or episodes has a big impact on readers.

It appears, however, that the readers read texts by skimming and concentrating on the image or expression of the characters in the story or on what is in the illustration surrounding those characters.

For this reason, it could be deduced that the illustrations in manga are more interesting to Indonesian youth than the texts.

But mistranslations distort the information and messages of the stories in the manga and miss the meanings intended by the authors. For this reason, the translated comics are a highly imperfect medium through which to understanding Japanese culture, society, life, and language.

One cannot but conclude that the translated manga leave a very important task undone, a duty that must be performed by educational institutions, most of all by the Japanese Studies Departments at Indonesian universities. Exhibitions and exchanges of cultural and arts activities are also very important for mutual understanding.

Volume of Comic Book Consumption Per month, on average, over half of the respondents A breakdown of more frequent consumers shows that Nearly one in twelve, 7. From the data it could be assumed that about half Manga maniacs people who read more than two comics daily can be found in Jakarta 9. If the latter is the case, we might say that Padang is still a city with an intellectual atmosphere, but there has been a change in kinds of readers in recent years, from scientific readers to nonscientific readers.

Three-quarters Readers spending between Rp. A sizable number, 1l.

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If the average living cost for a student in all six cities averages Rp. Asked what they get from reading Japanese comic books, a plurality Information about culture, such as lifestyle and language, is mentioned by Other students like attractive illustrations and interesting stories 6.

By reading Japanese comic books, the respondents get exposure to Japan lifestyle, language, and culture. It might be supposed that reading Japanese comics should increase their knowledge about Japan, but critical question must be raised, " It is true that Japanese comics are a part of culture and life style, or is the promotion of Japanese economic in- terests through comic books the important point?

Elex Media Komputindo published Bahasa Indo- nesia translations of Japanese manga titles between and Just over half The number of comic book series published reaches On aver- age, a comic book that is not part of a series is printed about copies, and the total number of copies is about , Of the serials, every individual episode or volume is printed in about copies, and the total number comes to approximately 4,, copies.

Elex Media Komputindo 's total printing during the period under study was thus 5,, copies, or , copies per year, or 33, copies per month, or , copies per week, or copies per day. Translated manga can be classified into nine groups, by theme.

In order of number of titles, the themes are: In interviews with the translators and the publishers of comic books, I was informed that the main technical problems they face are a layout constraint and a translation con- tent constraint. Manga in the original Japanese read from top right to bottom left.

The order of illustrations in manga which is from top right to bottom left has to be adjusted into the order of comic books in Indonesia that is from top left to bottom right.

If the layout were simply reversed, illustrations facing left in manga would have to be put facing right in the translated Indonesian versions. However, by agreement between the publishers, this problem can be overcome with advanced printing technology; illustrations facing left in manga can remain facing left in the layout of the Bahasa Indonesia version, even though there will be a change in the mood.

The space provided for the dialog also poses difficulties for translators and publish- ers. Japanese, using kanji and the two kana syllabaries, needs a relatively narrower space than is required to print the dialog in Bahasa Indonesia.

Minimizing the illustrations, including the close-ups of characters ' faces, can solve this problem. Such a change does not disrupt the essence of the comics so long as the content of the source language does not diverge in the target language translation.

Category:Romantic comedy anime and manga

Linguistic constraint. The sentence structure of Japanese is different from the sen- tence structure of Bahasa Indonesia. Typically, manga language is informal spoken Japa- nese, depending on the discourse. Abbreviations and slang are frequently used in Manga.

The vocabulary used in manga does not always appear in Japanese dictionaries. This is because slang language can be created anytime by a certain group of language users, and the new terms initially only apply to the activities or sensibilities of a particular group.

Youth create slang language easily based on their own common experience, exclusive of others, and discourse that are only employed in a limited group of youth, usually in their peer group, because there are some hidden meanings that other people outside the group should not know. However, many peer groups, the usage of this language even expands, as it becomes a limited lingua franca, eventually uses such a slang language widely.Comedy anime and manga Romance anime and manga Romantic comedy comics.

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